Despite the great media attention for artificial intelligence (AI), for many health care professionals the term and the functioning of AI remain a “black box,” leading to exaggerated expectations on the one hand and unfounded fears on the other. In this review, we provide a conceptual classification and a brief summary of the technical fundamentals of AI. Possible applications are discussed on the basis of a typical work flow in medical imaging, grouped by planning, scanning, interpretation, and reporting. The main limitations of current AI techniques, such as issues with interpretability or the need for large amounts of annotated data, are briefly addressed. Finally, we highlight the possible impact of AI on the nuclear medicine profession, the associated challenges and, last but not least, the opportunities.